2017-11-18 21:02:13 UTC
"A time crystal or space-time crystal is a structure that repeats periodically in time, as well as in space. Normal three-dimensional crystals have a repeating pattern in space, but remain unchanged with respect to time; time crystals repeat themselves in time as well, leading the crystal to change from moment to moment. A time crystal never reaches thermal equilibrium, as it is a type of non-equilibrium matter - a form of matter proposed in 2012, and first observed in 2017. This state of matter cannot be isolated from its environment - it is an open system in non-equilibrium. The idea of a time crystal was first described by Nobel laureate and MIT professor Frank Wilczek in 2012. Subsequent work developed a more precise definition for time crystals, ultimately leading to a proof that they cannot exist in equilibrium. Then in 2016, Norman Yao and colleagues at the University of California at Berkeley proposed a way to create non-equilibrium time crystals, which Christopher Monroe and Mikhail Lukin independently confirmed in their labs. Both experiments were published in Nature in 2017." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_crystal
Philip Ball explains why Frank Wilczek's time crystals are bogus:
"But to make that happen, the researchers must deliver kicks to the spins, provided by a laser or pulses of microwaves, to keep them out of equilibrium. The time crystals are sustained only by constant kicking, even though - crucially - their oscillation doesn't match the rhythm of the kicking. The experiments are ingenious and the results show that this modified version of Wilczek's vision is feasible. But are we right to award the new findings this eye-catching new label, or are they really just a new example of a phenomenon that has been going on since the first primeval heart started beating? If these fancy arrangements of quantum spins deserve to be called time crystals, can we then say that we each already have a time crystal pulsing inside of us, keeping us alive?" http://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/blogs/philip-ball/time-crystals-could-they-exist-science-physics
Genuine time crystals (all of them are perpetual-motion machines of the second kind):
"The Formation of the Floating Water Bridge including electric breakdowns"
"Liquid Dielectric Capacitor" [See the turbulent motion between the plates of the capacitor]
See the explanation of the last picture here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duncan%27s_Paradox