Second Law of Thermodynamics Disproved in 2002
(trop ancien pour répondre)
Pentcho Valev
2017-11-15 09:42:27 UTC
Nature 2002: "Second law broken. Researchers have shown for the first time that, on the level of thousands of atoms and molecules, fleeting energy increases violate the second law of thermodynamics. [...] They found that over periods of time less than two seconds, variations in the random thermal motion of water molecules occasionally gave individual beads a kick. This increased the beads' kinetic energy by a small but significant amount, in apparent violation of the second law." http://www.nature.com/news/2002/020722/full/news020722-2.html

Scientific American 2002: "Second Law of Thermodynamics Violated. [...] ...the water molecules interacted with the bead in such a way that energy was transferred from the liquid to the bead. These additional kicks used the random thermal motion of the water to do the work of moving the bead, in effect yielding something for nothing. For periods of movement lasting less than two seconds, the bead was almost as likely to gain energy from the water as it was to add energy to the reservoir, the investigators say." https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/second-law-of-thermodynam/

The key fact is the enormous duration of the thermal kick - up to two seconds. You may not know the physical mechanism (in 2002 scientists didn't know it) but there can be no doubt that the second law of thermodynamics is violated - hence the straightforward titles.

I have discussed this and other violations of the second law (which are, surprisingly, commonplace) in my comments here:

Nature 01 November 2017: "The new thermodynamics: how quantum physics is bending the rules. It would take a foolhardy physicist to dare attempt to break the laws of thermodynamics. But it turns out that there may be ways to bend them." http://www.nature.com/news/the-new-thermodynamics-how-quantum-physics-is-bending-the-rules-1.22937

Pentcho Valev
Pentcho Valev
2017-11-16 13:01:46 UTC
Nature 2002: "Researchers have shown for the first time that, on the level of thousands of atoms and molecules, fleeting energy increases violate the second law of thermodynamics. [...] They found that over periods of time less than two seconds, variations in the random thermal motion of water molecules occasionally gave individual beads a kick." http://www.nature.com/news/2002/020722/full/news020722-2.html

No thermal fluctuation can produce a kick lasting for so long (up to two seconds). Only a local FLOW can push the bead in this way, and the flow, generated by a local electric field, is essentially identical to the flows in this system:

"The Formation of the Floating Water Bridge..."

In the electric field between the plates of a capacitor, the same flows can be seen:

"Liquid Dielectric Capacitor"

The electric field is created by the laser beam:

"A deviation from the second law of thermodynamics has been demonstrated experimentally for the first time. [...] To test the idea, the researchers put about 100 latex beads - each 6.3 µm across - into a water-filled cell, which was placed on the stage of a microscope. The researchers focused a laser onto one of the beads, which induced a dipole moment in the bead and drew it towards the most intense region of the electric field in the laser beam." http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2002/jul/16/small-systems-defy-second-law

"Optical tweezers are capable of manipulating nanometer and micron-sized dielectric particles by exerting extremely small forces via a highly focused laser beam. The beam is typically focused by sending it through a microscope objective. The narrowest point of the focused beam, known as the beam waist, contains a very strong electric field gradient. Dielectric particles are attracted along the gradient to the region of strongest electric field, which is the center of the beam." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_tweezers

Electric fields manage to convert the chaotic thermal motion into macroscopically expressed perpetual (limited only by the deterioration of the system) flows capable of doing work at the expense of ambient heat. In 2002 I tried, for the first time, to call the attention of the scientific community to the effect (but failed):

"...as two vertical constant-charge capacitor plates partially dip into a pool of a liquid dielectric (e.g. water), the liquid between them rises high above the surface of the rest of the liquid in the pool. Evidently, if one punches a macroscopic hole in one of the plates, nothing could prevent the liquid between the plates from leaking out through the hole and generating an eternal waterfall outside the capacitor. This hypothesis has been discussed on many occasions but so far no serious counter-argument has been raised." Pentcho Valev, The Law of Self-Acting Machines and Irreversible Processes with Reversible Replicas http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AIPC..643..430V

Pentcho Valev
Pentcho Valev
2017-11-17 13:40:40 UTC
"Moreover, our experiment provides the first evidence that the appreciable and measurable violations of the second law of thermodynamics in small systems occur not only at simulation time scales (femtoseconds), but also at colloidal time and length scales (seconds)." Experimental Demonstration of Violations of the Second Law of Thermodynamics for Small Systems and Short Time Scales, G. M. Wang, E. M. Sevick, Emil Mittag, Debra J. Searles, and Denis J. Evans, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 050601 – Published 15 July 2002 https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.050601

Analogous long-duration kicks would be observed if the colloidal particles are placed between the plates of a liquid dielectric capacitor (flows in the liquid able to "kick" are clearly seen in the video):

"Liquid Dielectric Capacitor"x http://youtu.be/T6KAH1JpdPg

In an electric field, water develops a specific pressure that pushes in all directions and can result in an eternal (limited only by the deterioration of the system) motion, on condition that the system provides suitable channels for water to move through. If, in the simplest case, two opposite charges immersed in water are close enough to attract each other, the specific pressure that develops between them counteracts the force of attraction and the latter apparently decreases:

Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky, Melba Phillips, Classical Electricity and Magnetism, pp.115-116: "Thus the decrease in force that is experienced between two charges when they are immersed in a dielectric liquid can be understood only by considering the effect of the PRESSURE OF THE LIQUID ON THE CHARGES themselves." http://www.amazon.com/Classical-Electricity-Magnetism-Second-Physics/dp/0486439240?tag=viglink21401-20

"However, in experiments in which a capacitor is submerged in a dielectric liquid the force per unit area exerted by one plate on another is observed to decrease... [...] This apparent paradox can be explained by taking into account the DIFFERENCE IN LIQUID PRESSURE in the field filled space between the plates and the field free region outside the capacitor." http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/jk1/lectures/node46.html

Tai Chow, Introduction to Electromagnetic Theory: A Modern Perspective, p. 267: "The strictly electric forces between charges on the conductors are not influenced by the presence of the dielectric medium. The medium is polarized, however, and the interaction of the electric field with the polarized medium results in an INCREASED FLUID PRESSURE ON THE CONDUCTORS that reduces the net forces acting on them." http://www.amazon.com/Introduction-To-Electromagnetic-Theory-Perspective/dp/0763738271

The specific pressure that develops in water placed in an electric field is NON-CONSERVATIVE. This means that, if suitably harnessed, the pressure will do work AT THE EXPENSE OF AMBIENT HEAT (in violation of the second law of thermodynamics).

Pentcho Valev